Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) (size Lie "black", tone "tension") - a hormone that is mainly produced by the pineal gland during night sleep. It slows down the metabolism, inhibits thyroid function. It is also an antioxidant that scavenges free radicals.
Meaning for the sleep rhythm
The researchers believe that seasonal depression is caused by changes in fall and winter light that alter melatonin production.
Melatonin inhibits thyroid function and slows down the metabolism. It is produced in the brain during sleep.
Melatonin production is stimulated by darkness and, slowest, by blue light. The precursor (precursor) of melatonin is serotonin, a neurotransmitter that is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan.
Two types of melatonin receptors have been identified in mammals: Mel1A and Mel1B. Most of the melatonin receptors are located in the hypothalamus and the retina of the eye. As the body ages, melatonin production is disrupted. It depends on a decrease or degeneration in the activity of the pineal gland (Latin Corpus Pineale) and is associated with more common sleep disorders.
Melatonin hormone is available in pharmacies. It is used for different types of sleep disorders - aging, traveling, trying to adjust to a new sleep rhythm. One of the drugs made from melatonin is Circadin. It is designed so that as the drug gradually dissolves, its concentration in the body remains the same and similar to that of naturally produced melatonin. The efficacy and safety of this drug in the studies were consistent with the efficacy of benzodiazepine (BZD) and non-benzodiazepine (non-BZD) hypodics. Melatonin is not associated with impairment of executive function. Sleep persists after melatonin treatment is discontinued, with no withdrawal symptoms or reversible insomnia - which is typical of BZD or non-BZD hypnotics.
About vitamin D.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids that are responsible for increasing the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, as well as numerous other biological effects. In humans, the major compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
The main natural source of the vitamin is the synthesis of cholecalciferol in the lower layers of the skin epidermis through a chemical reaction that depends on exposure to sunlight (especially UVB radiation). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be obtained from food and from dietary supplements. Few foods, like oily fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D. In the United States and other countries, cow's milk and plant-based milk substitutes are fortified with vitamin D, as are many breakfast cereals. Mushrooms exposed to ultraviolet light contribute useful amounts of vitamin D. Dietary recommendations usually assume that all of a person's vitamin D is taken orally, as exposure to the sun varies among populations and recommendations about the amount of sun exposure are uncertain about the risk of skin cancer.
Vitamin D from food or from skin synthesis is biologically inactive. It is activated by two protein enzyme hydroxylation steps, the first in the liver and the second in the kidneys. Since vitamin D can be synthesized in sufficient quantities by most mammals when exposed to sufficient sunlight, it is not strictly necessary, so technically not a vitamin. Instead, it can be viewed as a hormone, with activation of the vitamin D pro hormone leading to the active form calcitriol, which then induces effects in several places via a nuclear receptor.
Cholecalciferol is converted to calcifediol (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the liver; Ergocalciferol is converted into 25-hydroxyergocalciferol. These two vitamin D metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25 (OH) D) are measured in serum to determine a person's vitamin D status. Calcifediol is further hydroxylated by the kidneys to form calcitriol (also known as 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), the biologically active form of vitamin D. Calcitriol circulates as a hormone in the blood and plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate levels. and promoting healthy bone growth and remodeling. Calcitriol has other effects as well, including some on cell growth, neuromuscular and immune functions, and reducing inflammation.
Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium homeostasis and metabolism. His discovery was based